MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior


MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1127)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills. [10] [10]

To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. Henry mintzberg has identified ten roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. The informational roles link all managerial work together. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. The decisional roles make significant use of the information. The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole.

The idea of a role comes from sociology and is the pattern of actions expected of a person in his activities involving others. It arises as a result of the position that he occupies in a group in a given situation. Thus, a manager who occupies different positions in different situations plays different roles because people in each situation have different expectations of him concerning his functions.
Interpersonal Roles:

The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. In the figurehead role, the manager represents the organization in all matters of formality. The top-level manager represents the company legally and socially to those outside of the organization.

Figure head- Ceremonial and symbolic role, obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature.
Leadership – Responsible for leading the subordinates towards objective by motivation. He is responsible for staffing, training, controlling, directing.
Liaison – Liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities.

The Informational Role:

The direct relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the manager in a unique position to get information. Thus, the three informational roles are primarily concerned with the information aspects of managerial work.

Monitor – collecting and passing on information, both from inside and outside the organization
Disseminator – communicating information to the organization members.
Spokesman – representing the organization to outsiders
The Decisional Role:

The unique access to information places the manager at the centre of organizational decision-making. There are four decisional roles. In the entrepreneur role, the manager initiates change.

Entrepreneur - bring innovative ideas to improve organizational performance.
Disturbance handler – taking corrective measure to cope up with adverse situation.
Resource allocators – Allocating human, physical resource and proper allocation of funds.
Negotiator – negotiating with trade unions, stakeholders, customers.

Management skill can has been identified by Katz as
Technical skill
Human skill
Conceptual skill

Technical skill-
The ability to do and apply specialized knowledge or expertise All jobs require some skills of expertise. Many people develop there skill either by training or develop their skill by job.

Human Skill-
This is the ability to work with, understanding and moyivate other people. This requires sensitivity towards other issue and concern. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skill, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates,. To acquire the human skills, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ablity to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feeling to others in a positive and inspiring way.

Conceptual Skill-
This is the ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available option.







Q.2 Explain the social learning theory in detail. [10] [10]

Social learning theory was proposed by Albert Bandura in 1977.
"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action."
The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.
His theory explains a social element, that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.

Social learning has four processes.
Attention process
Retention process
Motor reproduction process
Reinforcement process

Attention process:
People learn from a model or other person only when they pay attention, recognize and identify its critical features. In order to learn they have to pay attention. Any thing that distract, will have a adverse effect on the learning. If the model is interested or there is a novel aspect to the situation, it is more likely to draw the full attention of the learner.

Retention process
A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after it is not longer available. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.

Motor reproduction process
After a person has paid attention and recognized the critical factor and retaining the features. He has the reproduce the same. It should be converted into action to bring out the results. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.

Reinforcement process
Individual will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment? For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.

Principles of social leaning theory are:

The highest level of observational learning is achieved by the first organization and rehearsing the modeled behavior into wards, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
Individual are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior, if it results in outcome by value.
Individual is more likely to adopt a modeled behavior, if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.

Q.3 Explain the Big 5 model of personality. [10]

Many researchers argue that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimension. The five dimensions are as below.
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Emotional stability
Openness to experience

Extraversion – comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive and sociable. Introverts tent to be reserved, timid, and quite. This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. They tend to say “YES”, “Lets do it” and so on. They are the one who are ready and loves challenges.
Example
I am the party of life
I don’t mind being the center of attention.
I feel comfortable around people.

Agreeableness – individual’s propensity to defer to others, High agreeableness people- cooperative, warm and trusting. Low agreeableness people – cold, disagreeable and antagonistic. This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other pro social behaviors. Agreeable are considered friendly, honest and trust worthy.. They have an optimistic view of human nature.
Example
I feel others emotions.
I have a soft heart.
I make people feel at ease.

Conscientiousness - A high conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized and unreliable. Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.
It is concern with the way in which we control, regulate and direct our impulse. They work on the first impulse. They can be considered as colorful, fun to be with. Conscientiousness include the factor know as “Need for achievement”. They are the individual who achieve success through purposeful planning and persistence. They are also regarded as intelligent and reliable, on a positive note. But on the other hand as perfectionist and workaholics.
Example
I am always prepared.
I like order.
I make a mess of things. (Reversed)

Emotional stability- This is also known as neuroticism a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be clam, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
Example
I am easily disturbed
I change my mood often
I am relaxed most of the time (reversed)

Openness to experience – This describes a dimension of personality that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from down to earth. The range of interests and fascinations with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar. Those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.
Open people are intellectually curious, appreciative of art and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be compared to close people, more aware of their feelings. People with low score tent to have a narrow, common interest. They prefer straight and obvious over the complex.
Example
I am full of ideas
I use difficult words
I do not have good imagination (reversed)





Q.4 What are the different factors influencing perception? [10] [10]

Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us, it allows us to act within our environment.
A number of factors influence one’s perception, they reside in.
In the perceiver.
In the object or target being perceived or
In the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

Characteristics of the Perceiver
Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are:

Attitudes: The perceiver’s attitudes affect perception. For example, suppose Mr. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization – a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom are male. Mr. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews.

Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. In addition, we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positive mood, we form more positive impressions of others. When in a negative mood, we tend to evaluate others unfavorably.

Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example, in an organizational context, a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinate’s efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job", regardless of the intention of the subordinates.

Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers’ self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. In contrast, a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others.
Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. For example, the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem, you may find it hard to be attentive in class.

Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure, an individual’s pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Others tend to focus more on central traits, or personality dispositions. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits.

Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal

Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately.

One’s own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people.

Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill.
These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation.

Characteristics of the Target
Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance plays a big role in our perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Motion, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. The perceiver will notice the target’s physical features like height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics that contrast with the norm, that are intense, or that are new or unusual. Physical attractiveness often colors our entire impression of another person. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favorably and attractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries.
Verbal communication from targets also affects our perception of them. We listen to the topics they speak about, their voice tone, and their accent and make judgments based on this input. Non-verbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in an attempt to form an impression of the target .As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together objects or events that are unrelated.
For example, employees in a particular department are seen as a group. If two employees of a department suddenly resign, we tend to assume their departures were related when in fact, they might be totally unrelated. People, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. The greater the similarity, the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as a group.

Characteristics of the Situation
The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place has an influence on the perceiver’s impression of the target. E.g. meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrast with the impression you would have formed, had you met the manager in a restaurant. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior. In these situations, we assume that ±ie individual’s behavior can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individual’s disposition. This is the discounting principle in social perception. For example, you may encounter an automobile salesperson who has a warm and personable manner, asks you about your work and hobbies, and seems genuinely interested in your taste in cars. Can you assume that this behavior reflects the salesperson’s personality? You probably cannot, because of the influence of the situation. This person is trying to sell you a car, and in this particular situation, he probably treats all customers in this manner.



Q.5 Write a note on contemporary work cohort. [10]
Contemporary Work Cohort, proposed by Robbins (2003) divides the work force into different groups depending on the era or period in which they have entered into work. It stresses upon individuals’ values which reflect the societal values of the period in which they grew up.

The cohorts and the respective values have been listed below:

Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s and exhibited the following value orientations:
They were influenced by the Great Depression and World War II
Believed in hard work
Tended to be loyal to their employer
Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security

Boomers—Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid1980s belonged to this category and their value orientations were:
Influenced heavily by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights and feminist movements, the Beatles, the Vietnam War, and baby boom competition. b. Distrusted authority, but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material success.
Distrusted authority, but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material success.
Organizations who employed them were vehicles for their careers.
Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social recognition.

Xers- began to enter the workforce from the mid1980s.

They cherished the following values:
Shaped by globalization, two career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computers.
Value flexibility, life options, and achievement of job satisfaction.
Family and relationships were important and enjoyed team oriented work.
Less willing to make personal sacrifices for employers than previous generations.
Terminal values: true friendship, happiness, and pleasure

Nexters -most recent entrants into the workforce.
Grew up in prosperous times, have high expectation, believe in themselves, and confident in their ability to succeed.
Never ending search for ideal job; see nothing wrong with job hopping.
Seek financial success.
Enjoy team work, but are highly self reliant.
Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life.

Q.6 What are the special issues in motivation? Discuss Jan 2011

Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal” (Robbins, 2003). Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization. And Persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.

Some of the special issues in motivation are below.
Motivating Professionals
The professional employees likely to seek more intrinsic satisfaction from their work than blue-collar employees. They generally have strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise are perhaps more loyal to their profession than to their employer. They need to regularly update their knowledge, and their commitment to their profession.

Therefore, extrinsic factors such as money and promotions would be low on their priority list. Rather, job challenge tends to be ranked high. They like to tackle problems and find solutions.

Managerial Implications:
Provide them with ongoing challenging projects.
Give them autonomy to follow their interests and allow them to structure their work.
Reward them with educational opportunities.
Also reward them with recognition.

Motivating temporary Workers
Temporary workers may be motivated if:
They are provided with permanent job opportunity
The opportunity for training is provided to them
They are provided with permanent job opportunity
The opportunity for training is provided to them

Motivating Low Skilled Service Workers
One of the most challenging managerial tasks in to motivate low skilled workers who are involved in repetitive physical work, where higher education and skills are not required. For this category of people, flexible work schedules and higher pay package may be proved effective motivational factors.


Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1

MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - 4 Cedits

(Book ID: B1127) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Explain the theories of emotion. [10]
In psychology, emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior. Emotionality is associated with a range of psychological phenomena including temperament, personality, mood and motivation. According to author David G. Meyers, human emotion involves "physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience."

Theories of Emotion:
The major theories of motivation can be grouped into three main categories: physiological, neurological and cognitive. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses. Finally, cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in the formation of emotions.

The James-Lange Theory of Emotion
The James-Lange theory is one of the best-known examples of a physiological theory of emotion. Independently proposed by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange, the James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events.
According to this theory, you see an external stimulus that leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction is dependent upon how you interpret those physical reactions. For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble and your heart begins to race. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will interpret your physical reactions and conclude that you are frightened ("I am trembling, therefore I am afraid").

The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Another well-know physiological theory is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. This theory states that we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling and muscle tension simultaneously. More specifically, it is suggested that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction.

Schachter-Singer Theory
Also known as the two-factor theory of emotion, the Schachter-Singer Theory is an example of a cognitive theory of emotion. This theory suggests that the physiological arousal occurs first, and then the individual must identify the reason behind this arousal in order to experience and label it as an emotion.


Q.2. Discuss the techniques of decision making in groups. [10]

Many types of decision making models can be studied and used by teams. Understanding decision making models allows teams to make intentional choices about which model might be most appropriate for the various decisions that they confront.
Individuals benefit from understanding decision models by becoming aware of how cognitive and affective biases can both positively and negatively impact how we work to influence our team on making a decision. Being aware of our biases can limit any negative impact from our biases. The models below describe how we work to affect and manipulate the team decision-making process, sometimes in productive ways and at times in detrimental ways for team decisions.
As a team, understanding decision-making models so that the team can make the best decision is valuable. The “best decision” is described as a decision that (1) would not have been thought of by an individual alone, (2) is a sound solution to the problem, (3) is a decision based upon input, as unbiased as possible, from each team member, and (4) addresses the team’s goal for the decision-making process.
Johnson and Johnson describe seven methods/processes that a team might use to make a decision.5 each method, along with its strengths and weaknesses, is discussed below.

Method1. Decision made by authority without group discussion
Process: The designated leader makes all decisions without consulting group members.
Strengths
Weaknesses
Takes minimal time to make decision
No group interaction
Commonly used in organizations (so we are familiar with method)
Team may not understand decision or be unable to implement decision
High on assertiveness scale (see conflict paper)
Low on cooperation scale (see conflict paper)
Appropriate Times for Method 1
• Simple, routine, administrative decisions; little time available to make decision; team commitment required to implement the decision is low.

Method2. Decision by expert
Process: Select the expert from group let the expert consider the issues, and let the expert make decisions.
Strengths
Weaknesses
Useful when one person on the team has the overwhelming expertise
Unclear how to determine who the expert is (team members may have different opinions)

No group interaction
May become popularity issue or power issue
Appropriate Times for Method 2
• Result is highly dependent on specific expertise, clear choice for expert, team commitment required to implement decision is low.

Method3. Decision by averaging individuals' opinions
Process: Separately ask each team member his/her opinion and average the results.
Strengths
Weaknesses
Extreme opinions cancelled out
No group interaction, team members are not truly involved in the decision
Error typically cancelled out
Opinions of least and most knowledgeable members may cancel
Group members consulted
Commitment to decision may not be strong
Useful when it is difficult to get the team together to talk
Unresolved conflict may exist or escalate
Urgent decisions can be made
May damage future team effectiveness
Appropriate Times for Method 3
• Time available for decision is limited; team participation is required, but lengthy interaction is undesirable; team commitment required to implement the decision is low.

Method4. Decision made by authority after group discussion
Process: The team creates ideas and has discussions, but the designated leader makes the final decision. The designated leader calls a meeting, presents the issue, listens to discussion from the team, and announces her/his decision.
Strengths
Weaknesses
Team used more than methods 1–3

• Team is not part of decision

Listening to the team increases the accuracy of the decision

• Team may compete for the leader’s attention


Team members may tell leader “what he/she wants to hear”
Still may not have commitment from the team to the decision
Appropriate Times for Method 4
• Available time allows team interaction but not agreement; clear consensus on authority; team commitment required to implement decision is moderately low.
Method5. Decision by minority
Process: A minority of the team, two or more members who constitute less than 50% of the team, make the team’s decision
Strengths
Weaknesses
Method often used by executive committees
Can be railroading
Method can be used by temporary committees
May not have full team commitment to decision
Useful for large number of decisions and limited time
May create an air of competition among team members
Some team perspective and discussion
Still may not have commitment from team to decision
Appropriate Times for Method 5
• Limited time prevents convening entire team; clear choice of minority group; team commitment required to implement the decision is moderately low.

Method6. Decision by majority vote
Process: This is the most commonly used method in the United States (not synonymous with best method). Discuss the decision until 51% or more of the team members make the decision.
Strengths
Weaknesses
Useful when there is insufficient time to make decision by consensus

• Taken for granted as the natural, or only, way for teams to make a decision

Useful when the complete team-member commitment is unnecessary for implementing a decision
Team is viewed as the “winners and the losers”; reduces the quality of decision

Minority opinion not discussed and may not be valued
May have unresolved and unaddressed conflict
Full group interaction is not obtained

Appropriate Times for Method 6
• Time constraints require decision; group consensus supporting voting process; team commitment required to implement decision is moderately high.

Method7. Decision by consensus
Process: Collective decision arrived at through an effective and fair communication process (all team members spoke and listened, and all were valued).

Strengths
Weaknesses
Most effective method of team decision making
Takes more time than methods 1–6
All team members express their thoughts and feelings
Takes psychological energy and high degree of team-member skill (can be negative if individual team members not committed to the process)
Team members “feel understood”

Active listening used (see communication paper)
Appropriate Times for Method 7
• Time available allows a consensus to be reached; the team is sufficiently skilled to reach a consensus; the team commitment required to implement the decision is high.
Method 7 takes well-practiced communication skills by all team members. Review prior section on environments for decision making and other mini documents on effective communication and conflict management.

Methods for Decision Making—Retrospective
these seven methods/strategies for decision making all have strengths and challenges. However, repeatedly, Method 7 (Decision by consensus) has positive long-standing results regarding team decision making.


Q.3 Elaborate the different stages in process of conflict. [10]
The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages (1) potential opposition or incompatibility (2) Cognition and personalization (3) intentions (4) Behavior (5) Outcome.

Stage 1: Potential opposition or incompatibility: The first step in the conflict process is the presence on conditions that create opportunities for conflict to rise. These cause or create opportunities for conflict to rise. These causes or sources of conflict have been condenses into three general categories - (1) Communications (2) Structure (3) Personal Variables.

(1)Communications:
Different words connotations, jargon insufficient exchange of information and noise in communication channel are all antecedent conditions to conflict. Too much communication as well as too little communication can rely foundation for conflict.

(2)Structure:
The term structure is used, in this context to include variables such as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, members/ goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems and the degree of dependence between groups.
The size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. The larger the group and the more specialized its activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict. Tenure and conflict have been found to be inversely related,. The potential for conflicts tends to be greatest when group members are younger and when turnover is high. The greater the ambiguity in defining where responsibility for action lies, the greater the potential for conflict to emerge. Such Jurisdictional ambiguity increases inter group fighting for control or resources and territory.

(3)Personal Variables:
Certain personality types- for example individuals who are highly authoritarian and dogmatic- lead to potential conflict. Another reason for conflict is difference in value systems. Value differences are the best explanations of diverse issues such as prejudice disagreements over one’s contribution to the group and rewards one deserves.

Stage 2: Cognition and personalization: conflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether or not conflict exists is a perception issue. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists. Because conflict is perceives does not mean that is personalized. For e.g. ” A may be aware that B and A are in serious disagreements but it may not make A tense or nations and it may have no effect whatsoever on A’s affection towards B” It is the felt level , when individuals become emotionally involved that parties experience anxiety , tension or hostility.

Stage2 is the place in the process where the parties decide what the conflict is about and emotions plays a major role in shaping perception.

Stage 3: Intentions: Intentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene between people’s perception and emotions and their overt behavior.
Using two dimensions cooperativeness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns)and assertiveness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns)- five conflict handling intentions can be identified.

1) Competing: when one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict, he is competing.
2) Collaborating: A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all the parties. In collaborating, the intention o the parties are to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view.
3) Avoiding: a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. Avoiding included trying to just ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree.
4) Accommodating: The willingness of one partying a conflict top lace the opponent’s interest above his or her own.
5) Compromising: A situation in which each party to a conflict is wiling to give up something.

Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. They define each party’s purpose. Yet people intention is not fixed. During the course of conflict, they might change because of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction to the behavior of other party.

Stage 4: Behavior: This is a stage where conflict becomes visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempt to implement each party’s intentions.

Stage 5 Outcomes: The action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result in consequences. These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group’s performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance.
Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions simulates creativity and innovations encourages interest and curiosity among group members provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released and fosters an environment of self evaluation and change.
Conflict is dysfunctional when uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Among the more undesirable consequences are a retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members.

Q.4 Write a note on GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome). [10]
The stress response has served an adaptive function throughout human evolution and serves and makes you more focused and alert.
But today’s causes of stress are largely emotional.
Frustrations at work, the lengthy commute, financial concerns, or relationship difficulties are today's stress causes.
Pretty much anything that annoys, frustrates, or scares you has the potential to activate the stress response and result in warning signs of stress.
Now you may feel that you are adapting to the higher and higher levels of stress. But you may be just living with an unhealthy amount of stress and in the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
Since chronic stress is deceptive and pervasive, this can mean that you don’t get much downtime or rest.
This can lead to exhaustion and even death - the third stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
Hans Seyle, a founding father of stress research, described that these stressors can affect the body in a 3-stage reaction.



These are known as the:
- Alarm phase
- Stage of resistance
- Exhaustion stage.

These different stages of stress resistance explain how stress affects health.

The alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome:

In the alarm phase you enter a heightened psychological and physiological arousal, known as the fight or flight response. In this stage stress hormones are released into the bloodstream. Adrenaline increases muscle tension, heart rate, and causes a number of other physical effects of stress. Research suggests that if you can reframe the stressor as a challenge you can reduce cortical levels. We discuss in more detail how cortical and stresses affect the body. In the fight or flight response these stress hormones mobilize the body’s resources to fight or flee from the stressful situation. Now there are some advantages to stress – it can make you more focused and alert! But stress for too long without adequate rest or recuperation can be bad for you! Often we are not aware of the tremendous toll that our minds and body pay in the routine, chronic stress that occurs everyday.
The resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome:
In the resistance stage the mind and the body attempt to adapt to the cause of stress. This could also be known as the adaptation phase. In this stage, the body remains alert (at a lower level) but continues the normal functions. In the resistance stage your body is like a car idling along with it's RPM too high - burning too much energy and becoming inefficient. You may think that you are adapting quite well to the higher stress level. Things may be moving along smoothly for you. However, you may simply be learning to live with an unhealthy stress level. You may notice increasing irritability and frustration, or lapses in concentration, or things just seem harder than they used to be. Stress can boost your concentration and focus, helping you to maintain motivation and discipline. But too much stress can result distress.

Each of us experience stress in different ways but some of the effects of stress include:

Warning Signs of Stress
  • Feelings of nausea
  • Feeling faint or sweaty
  • Headaches or migraine
  • Indigestion, constipation
  • Increased skin irritations e.g. eczema
  • An increase in minor illnesses
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • Increased forgetfulness
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • A loss of a sense of humor
  • Increased irritability or moodiness
  • Negative thinking
  • Poorer concentration
  • Being constantly worried

When looking at these stress symptoms please keep in mind that these symptoms could be due to other medical problems. It is important for you to visit your local doctor for a complete checkup.
In the resistance stage, whether effective or ineffective, resistance (or adaptation) continues until the person is no longer capable of resistance or the cause of stress passes.
If the body is unable to turn the stress response off to rest and recuperate then irritability, burnout, and fatigue are likely to occur. There are a number of relaxation techniques that you can do which activate the relaxation response. The relaxation response counters the physical and emotional effects of stress.

The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome:
It is at this point that exhaustion sets in.Stress has generally occurred for some time and at this point, resistance can drop off and the activity returns to the point before the emergency. This stage of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by issues such as burnout and exhaustion. The body loses it resistance to fight stress and the body’s immune system that fights off disease and infection is weakened.

Q.5Discuss the power and influence tactics. [10]
Influence is the process of changing someone's behavior. It's about being able to move things forward, without pushing, forcing or telling others what to do. It's the ability to work everything at your disposal, both verbal and non-verbal communication, to create the impact you want, rather than letting things just happen.

There are ten common influence tactics that people can use ethically (some are more valid are sales than others):

Legitimizing by referring to or using recognized authority

Logical Persuading by using logic to persuade the influence.

  • Appealing to Friendship and asking friends for favors or assistance
  • Socializing to establish rapport, find commonalities and build a connection
  • Consulting by examining a problem and working with the influence towards a solution
  • Stating, boldly and directly stating what you want the prospect to do
  • Appealing to Values, inspiring cooperation by appealing to values, emotions, or feelings
  • Modeling or setting an example for others to follow
  • Exchanging by giving something of value to the influence in return for something you want
  • Alliance Building, building an alliance of supporters who can help you influences others

According to Robert B. Cialdini PhD, there are 6 universal influence tactics. Click here for my influence summary of them.
Today, in this field, Dr. Cialdini is the most-cited living Social Psychologist in the world.

But merely applying a tactic will not make you an effective influencer.
Influence effectiveness depends on a combination of factors including: choice of influence tactic, your skill at using the tactic and your personal power.
For years many believed that the ability to influence was a character attribute some had it and others did not.
It's true for some people; the power to influence comes naturally. However, there's been research conducted over the past 30 years that indicates virtually anyone can apply the principles of influence to change the outcome of any personal interaction.

This research is based upon extensive observation of leading salespeople inside a wide variety of industries. By studying individuals in sales situations, scientists have been able to identify certain patterns of behavior and speech that increase the likelihood of someone saying yes to a request.


Q.6 Explain the characteristics of organization Development. [10]

Organizational Development (OD) can be described as the systematic process to change the culture, system and behavior of organization. It is process that helps in solving organizational problems and achieving organizational objectives. Organizational Development works as important mechanism that helps in impressing the organization and its employee through planned and established system. It concentrates on people dimensions like norms, values, attitudes, relationships, organizational culture etc. The strategies of Organizational Development focus on enhancement of organization effectiveness and solving organizational problems. It includes structural and technological changes and focuses on working relationships of employees with the organization. Organizational Development is the modern approach to management of change for human resources development.

The characteristics of Organizational Development (OD) are as follows:-
  • Organisational Development is an educational strategy that attempts to bring about a planned change.
  • Organisational Development relates to real organizational problems instead of hypothetical cases.
  • Organisational Development uses sensitivity training methods and lay emphasis on the significance of experiment based training.
  • Its change agents are almost external consultants outside of the organization.
  • The external change agents and internal organization executives establish a collaborative relationship that involves mutual trust, influence and jointly determined goals.
  • The external change agents are humanists and seek to establish a social and altruistic philosophy within an organisation.
  • The goals that the change agent seeks to achieve through OD tend to reflect human approach and aims for better conflict resolution, increased understanding and more considerable leadership.
  • The required changes in the organisation are usually the result of some immediate problems but it is a long term approach covering three to five years.
  • It is used to describe variety of change programmes and intends to change the organizational philosophies, attitudes and skills of people.
  • It is a dynamic process that involves considerable investment of money and time.
  • It is research based activity and aims at conducting surveys, collection of data and evaluation of the situation
  • It works on open and adaptive system concepts and believes that organizational design and managerial performance are mutually interdependent.